Monday 13 March 2023



Subject: HISTORY (027)

Class: XI (Humanities)


Max. Marks: 80


1.       C. Nabopolassar

2.       A. In Mesopotamian society the joint family was the norm.

3.       D. Sumer, Babylonia, Assyria

4.       D. Aramaic----Carthage

5.       C. St. Augustine admitted that his mother was regularly beaten by his father

6.       C. Quriltai

7.       D. Only III

8.       D. Yam

9.       A. Chapter 6

10.   A. Charlemagne

11.   B. A and the R are correct but the R is not the correct explanation of the A.

12.   B. Canterbury Tales

13.   D. Painting

14.   B. On the Dignity of Man

15.   A. Wampum

16.   A. John Marshall ,the US Chief Justice

17.   C. Andrew Carnegie

18.   A. Rich country, strong army

19.   B. Dr. Sun Yatsen

20.   A. Tokugawa

21.   C. Taiwan

22.   Early settlers began to build temples at selected spots in their villages.

·         The earliest known temple was a small shrine made of unbaked bricks.

·         These early temples were much like a house because they were small in size.

·         There used to be an open courtyard around which rooms were constructed.

·         Temples were the residence of various gods.

·         Temples also had their outer wall going in and out at regular intervals, which no ordinary building ever had.

·         Temples were the residences of various gods : of the Moon God of Ur, or of Inanna the Goddess of Love and War

·          Constructed in brick, temples became larger over time, with several rooms around open courtyards.

·         The god was the focus of worship : to him or her people brought grain, curd and fish (the floors of some early temples had thick layers of fish bones).

·         The god was also the theoretical owner of the agricultural fields, the fisheries, and the herds of the local community.

·         At the  time of the processing of produce, for example, oil pressing, grain grinding, spinning, and the weaving of woolen cloth was done in the temple.


23.   Yasa was a secret written code of law created by Genghis Khan.

·         The word Yassa translates into "order" or "decree".

·         It was the de facto law of the Mongol Empire even though the "law" was kept secret and never made public. The Yassa seems to have its origin as decrees issued in war times.

·         Later, these decrees were codified and expanded to include cultural and life-style conventions.

·         By keeping the Yassa secret, the decrees could be modified and used selectively.

·         These were approved by Quritali during Genghis Khan's reign.

·         These rules were mainly concerned with Mongol army, hunting, postage system, social ladder, etc.

24.   The reason behind Italian towns being the first to experience the ideas of humanism are mentioned below.

·      Italian towns were the ones to have the earliest universities in Europe.

·      During the eleventh century universities like Padua and Bologna had been centre of legal studies.

·      It was conveyed and successfully implied through the educational programme that there much more to be learnt than the religious teaching.

·      During 13th and 14th Centuries education had almost spread in Italy, in 1300 Humanism was taught at Padua University in Italy and in 1349 University was established in Florence.

·      The citizens were made aware of the views and ideas relating to humanism, which was taught in educational institutions.


·         Artists wanted “perfectly proportioned men and women” in their sculptures. 

·         They took the help of scientists to reach perfection. Painters knowledge of geometry and changing quality of light helped them to acquire a three-dimensional quality. 

·         Many artists like Leonardo da Vinci studied human anatomy so as to make their paintings and sculpture realistic, e.g :

·         The statue The Pieta by Michelangelo. 

·         Thus, anatomy, geometry, physics as well as a strong sense of beauty, gave a new quality to Italian art.

25.         It was a peaceful non-violent revolution of ideas. With the rapid growth in trade, commerce and industry there emerged a new awakening in the field of art, literature and science which swept the whole Western Europe. Now the people began to test every thing on reasoning. In such circumstances, the darkness and ignorance of the medieval age began to give place to the light and knowledge of the Modern Age.

So the Renaissance was a big factor that led to the beginning of the modern age.

Main Features of Renaissance Period:

·         Rise of Nation-States : The reformation and help of the middle class had promoted the people to rise against the authourity of the Pope and the feudal lords. In such circumstances the people supported those rulers who tried to get rid of the feudal lords and the Pope. In this way they established their own kingdoms which they ruled as they pleased. These were known as the Nation-States which proved very much helpful in bringing the modern age.

·         The Discoveries of New Lands : The great sailors like Vasco-da-Gama and Columbus discovered many new lands like India and America. As a result, people of one county began to mix freely with the people of the rest of the world. And there was free exchange of ideas. Thus the discovery of new lands also helped in bringing the modern age.

·          The Reforms made by the Reformers : Many reformers attacked and criticised the Church and the feudal system, the two main pillars of the Middle Ages. The reformers like Martin Luther of Germany, criticised and opposed the corrupt practices of the clergy. He started a new movement i.e. the Protestant Movement against the Roman Catholic Church. His movement proved helpful in promoting free thinking among the people. Now they gave up blind faith and useless dogmas and thus stepped towards the modern age.

26.   The history of the Australian local people groups was cleared out of history books since it was composed by European pioneers.

·      Till the middle of the twentieth century, Australian history course readings barely said the local people groups but to propose that the last mentioned were unfriendly to Europeans.

·      The purpose was to keep English History over all, and consequently Australian work was overlooked and acclaims were given to English individuals in their books.

·      Thus, colonial intentions of keeping English civilisation at a higher stand over the native civilisation was easily achieved by keeping the Australian native people out of the history books.

27.   Deng Xiaoping kept party control strong while introducinga socialist market economy.

·         In 1978, the Party declared its goal as theFour Modernisations (to develop science, industry, agriculture, defence).

·         Debate was allowed as long as the Party was not questioned.

·         In this new and liberating climate, as at the time of the May Fourthmovement 60 years earlier, there was an exciting explosion of newideas.

·         On 5 December 1978, a wall-poster, ‘The Fifth Modernisation’proclaimed that without Democracy the other modernisations wouldcome to nothing. It went on to criticise the CCP for not solving theproblem of poverty or ending sexual exploitation, even citing cases ofsuch abuse from within the Party

o   OR

In 1934, the communist army of about 1,00,000 under the leadership of Mao TseTung set out on the Long March.

·         The marchers were continually harassed by Kuomintang forces, by local war lords and by unfriendly tribesmen.

·         Only 20,000 marchers finally reached northern Sheni in late 1935. They were soonjoined by other communist armies.

28.   Gender-It was witnessed that women were given independent legal rights to the effect that they

·         were made heir to the property of their natal family, entitled to own and manage the property at their will, and independent property owner on their father’s death.

·         Literacy-Advertisements and graffiti (wall writing) in Pompeii reveals that there was casual literacy.A woman was transferred to their husbands’ authority after marriage.

·         Culture-Diversity of religious cults and local deities is witnessed all through the Roman empire. 

·         Economic expansion-Economic infrastructure of the Roman empire was consisting of harbors,

·         mines, quarries, brickyard, and olive oil factories.


From the mid-third century onward, army the  vital component to the success and stability of the empire slowly withered away.

·         Poor imperial strategy combined with the declining quality of the soldiery opened the empire to increasing barbarian attacks. Over time, these attacks simply overwhelmed the remaining Roman military forces.

·         Constant Wars and Heavy Military Spending. Constant warfare required heavy military spending. The Roman army became over-stretched and needed more and more soldiers.

·         the Roman Empire plunged into a near fifty year period of chaos know as the Third-Century Crisis.This bleak time in Roman history found the empire engaged in a never-ending series of foreign and civil wars which led to widespread destruction within many of the provinces.

·         Frequent attack of the Goths, Visigoths, Vandals and Franks  shacked the empire.

·         The decline in morals, especially in the rich upper classes, nobility and the emperors, had a devastating impact on the Romans. Emperors such as Tiberius, Nero, commodious were indulged in varieties of immoral activities.

·         Political Corruption and the Praetorian Guard. At one point the Praetorian Guard sold at auction the throne of the world to the highest bidder.

·         The number of slaves increased dramatically during the first 2 centuries of the Roman Empire. During Augustus period out of 7.5 million people 3 million were slaves. So over dependence on slaves ruined the society.

29.   Feudalism was the medieval model of government predating the birth of the modern nation-state. It originated from a Latin word Feudum means fief   or a piece of land.

        Feudal society is a military hierarchy in which a ruler or lord offers mounted fighters a fief, a unit of land to control in exchange for a military service.

        The individual who accepted this land became a vassal and the man who granted the land become known as his liege or his lord.

        In the late medieval period, the fiefdom often became hereditary, and the son of a knight or lesser nobleman would inherit the land and the military duties from his father upon the father's death.


           The Three Orders of Feudalism are First Order or the Clergy, the Second Order or the Nobles and the Third Order or the Peasants.

           First Order: Those "who prayed" (oratores) were placed in the First order.

           Like the warrior class, those who prayed were often from aristocratic backgrounds.

           They enjoyed many of the same rights and privileges as the knightly order. Because they often came from the same families  as landholders and  had much in common with lay lords. As educated men, clergy sometimes served at court.

           Monastic houses, which prayed for the kingdom, community, and individuals, comprised another branch of those who prayed.

           Medieval society was a religious society, and clergy and monks held a special place because they served God.

           Second Order: Arch Dukes, Dukes, Barons, Knights constituted the second order.

           A lord was in broad terms a noble who held land,

           A vassal was a person who was granted possession of the land by the lord, and the land was known as a fief.

           In exchange for the use of the fief and the protection of the lord, the vassal would provide some sort of service to the lord.

           A noble man accepted the king as his seigneur & they made mutual promise.

           When a person was appointed as a lord for the first time, three important  ceremonies was conducted i.e., homage, oath of fidelity & investiture. In each occasion the feudal lord & his subject promise to be loyal, faithful & obedient as a master to his servant.

           The noble enjoyed a privileged status in the society. They had absolute control over his property, could raise troops held his own cause & issued coins on his own names.

           A lord can attack the territory of another lord, so in order to different territories, they developed castle.

·            Third Order: A large number of peasantry constituted the third estate.

           Their main duty was to work & to pay tax.

           They were broadly divided into 3 category i.e., free men, villeins& serfs.

           The free men had their own land & suppose to pay taxes not free service.

           They can move from one place to another.

           But in contrast to free the villeins had their own land but they supposed to work in the field of the feudal lord for a fixed period in a year.

           The lowest class in the society was the serfs whose condition was no better than the slave.

           Entire family was living in a small room in an unhygienic condition.

           They were forced to work for long hour.

           They had no knowledge what a square meal of a day throughout the year.

           They cannot be a free man easily.

           They cannot even if marry without the permission of feudal lord.


Ans. The crisis of the Late Middle Ages refers to a series of events in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries that brought centuries of European prosperity and growth to a halt.

     Three major crises led to radical changes in all areas of society: demographic collapse, political instabilities and religious upheavals.

     A series of famines and plagues, beginning with the Great Famine of 1315–17 and especially the Black Death of 1348, reduced the population perhaps by half or more as the Medieval Warm Period came to a close and the first century of the Little Ice Age began.

     Harsher winters  reduced harvests.

     Food shortages and rapidly inflating prices were a fact of life for as much as a century before the plague.

     In the years 1315 to 1317 a catastrophic famine, known as the Great Famine, struck much of North West Europe. It was arguably the worst in European history, perhaps reducing the population by more than 10%.

     The European economy entered a vicious circle in which hunger and chronic, low-level debilitating disease reduced the productivity of labourers, and so the grain output was reduced, causing grain prices to increase. Standards of living fell drastically, diets grew more limited, and Europeans as a whole experienced more health problems.

     Typhoid, cholera, plague like diseases seriously disturbed the people of Europe.

     Popular uprisings were one of the major problems before the administration. To indicate how common and widespread these movements became, in Germany between 1336 and 1525 there were no less than sixty phases of militant peasant unrest.

     The unity of the Roman Catholic Church was shattered by the Western Schism. The Holy Roman Empire was also in decline.

30.    In 1868, a movement forcibly removed the shogun from power, and brought the Emperor to Edo. On April 17, 1868, the emperor announced the Charter Oath that all would swear to him.

     This oath presented the emperor's commitment to transforming Japan into a modern nation-state.

     The five points of the oath were modelled on the ideals of European nation-states.

     They included the creation of assemblies, public discussion, and allowing people of all social classes participation in government.

     The oath also said people could pursue jobs that they wanted, rather than being limited to class-specific traditional occupations.

     Finally, the new government pledged to openly seek out knowledge all over the world to improve and empower Japan.

     Meiji Restoration  made Japan a nation-state.

     Reorganisation of Army in western model. The government launched a policy with the slogan ‘fukokukyohei’(rich country, strong army).

     Emperor system was developed.

     A new school system began to be built from the 1870s.                     (Any other relevant points)                                    


Ans.  Mao Zedong and communist party of china were successful in liberating china.

     Unlike the traditional Marxist idea of revolution of the workers, Mao Zedong brought a revolution based on the peasantry.

     Unlike the dictatorship of the proletariat of the soviet union, he established a new democracy in China, where all social classes were considered equal.

     Emphasised on central control over key areas of economy and private enterprise and private ownership were gradually abolished.

     To galvanise industrial development, the great leap forward movement was launched in which households were encouraged to build furnaces in their backwards.

     Agriculture was organised in the farm of communes. This raised the productivity.

     Emphasis was placed in ideology and cultural revolution was brought under which students and professionals were sent to the countryside to learn.  (Any other relevant points) 

31.   1. Sculpture of a woman’s head

2. Uruk before 3000 BCE

3. lapis lazuli (blue) and shell (white) and bitumen (black), white Marble

32.   1. Washington Irving

When the Indians are among themselves, they are great mimics, and entertain themselves excessively at the expense of the whites otherwise Taciturn

2. The French philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau, such people were to be admired, as they were untouched by the corruptions of ‘civilisation’.

Such people living close to nature had only limited powers of imagination and emotion.

3. The various terms used for the native peoples of New World are aborigine, aboriginal, First Nations peoples, Indigenous peoples, Native Americans and Red Indians.

33.     1. 13th century Persian chronicler of the Mongol rulers of Iran

  2. Rich residents of the city

  3. The people had committed great Sins. That’s why God had sent a punishment like him to  

       punish them.


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