Wednesday 20 January 2021

Thinkers Beliefs and Buildings : NCERT NOTES

  Thinkers Beliefs and Buildings :  NCERT NOTES

Thinkers, Beliefs and Buildings

                Cultural development

( from 600 BC to 600 CE)

introduction :

                  Under this lesson, we will study about Mahatma Buddha and Lord Mahavira. Also, you will get information about Sanchi Stupa as physical evidence.

What is a stupa?

The Sanskrit meaning of Stupa is mound, heap or thuha. After Parinirvana of Mahatma Buddha his ashes were divided into eight parts and samadhis were built on them. These are called stupas. The first mention of the stupa is found in the Rigveda.

In this the rising flames of fire are called stupas.

Why were stupas built?

This quotation is derived from the Mahaparinibban Sutta, which is part of the Sutta Pitaka.

Before Parinirvan, Anand asked: What will we do with the remains of Lord Tathagata (another name of Buddha)?

Budva said, "Do not stop yourself with special respect for the remains of Tathagata. Religious people, strive for your own good."

But on specific request Budva said:

"They should make thupa (the pali form of the stupa) at the square of the four Mahapaths for the Tathagata. Whoever offers incense or garland there… or will bring the head there, or bring peace to the heart there, for all of them. It will cause happiness and bliss for ever. "

              The stupa was related to the cremation of the deceased. After the cremation, the stupa developed by the practice of keeping the remaining bones in a vessel and covering it with soil.

        Initially, the stupas were built on the remains of the Buddha. Later stupas were also erected on the remains of his disciples.

              It is known from the Buddhist text "Ashokavadan" that 84000 stupas were built by Emperor Ashoka.

              Chinese traveler Xuanzang himself saw stupas at Taxila, Srinagar, Thaneshwar, Mathura, Kanauj, Prayag, Kosambi, Varanasi, Vaishali, Gaya etc. but these have been destroyed today.

Stupa Structure:

The shape of the stupa is found to be round-circular. In it, a spatula is made in the shape of an inverted bowl over the medhi (platform), which is called an egg. There was a hermica over the eggs. This balcony-like structure was a symbol of the house of the gods. There was a mast from Harmika which was called Yashti which had a chhatri.

The mound is surrounded by a wall called railing. The place made for the circumambulation between the stupa and Vedika is called Pradakshina Path. In the period of time, entrances were made around Vedika in all four directions. Arched archways were made at the entrance.

History of ancient religions:

                  Vedic religion

Vedic religion is the oldest religion in India and Vedas are the oldest texts of Indian religion.

In Manusmriti it is said - "Religion Curiousness, Proof Paramam Shruti:" That is, Veda is the ultimate proof for those who want to get knowledge of religion.


Rigvedic Religion: 1500 BC From 1000 BC The Rigveda was composed between This period is called the Rigvedic period. In this period, the gods had predominance. They were divided into three categories.

Earth Gods: Earth, Fire, Mon, Jupiter |

Space God - Indra, Vayu, Marut, Rudra, Pushan.

Sky god - Varuna, Surya |

* Indra is mentioned 250 times and Agni 200 times in the Rigveda. Indra is the main deity.

* Indra is considered to be the god of rain, Marut of storm and Varuna the god of power and the god of the sea.

* There is a total of 1028 Suktas and 10,500 mantras in the Rigveda.

* It is divided into 10 circles.

* Gayatri Mantra is derived from Rigveda.

 ऊँ भूर्भुव: स्व: तत्सवितुर्वरेण्यं भर्गो देवस्य धीमहि।
               धियो यो न: प्रचोदयात्।

Meaning - In that life, we should embrace God as perishable, sorrowful, happy form, elevated, bright, sinful and godlike. May that God inspire our intellect on the path of grace.

Post-Vedic Religion: 1000 BC From 600 BC Vedic literature was composed between Yajurveda, Samaveda, Atharvaveda etc. This period is called the later Vedic period. During this period Tridev Brahma, Vishnu and Mahesh are worshiped.

Yergveda: Collection of Yajna and Havan Mantras.

Samaveda: Collection of Mantras to be sung.

Atharvaveda: Description of Tantra-mantra, Witchcraft and Ayurvedic medicines

Brahmin Granth: Commentaries on the meaning and essence of Ved Mantras are found in Brahmin texts. The Upveda and Brahmin texts of each Veda are as follows.

Sr. No.     Veda             Upveda                     Brahmin Text

1.         Rigveda             Ayurveda                 Aitareya, Kaushitki

2.         Yajurveda         Dhanurveda             Shatapath, Vajnaye, Taittariya

3.        Samved             Gandharveda             Tanday, Panchvish, Jamayani

4.        Atharvaveda        Shilpaveda             Gopath Brahman

* Aranyaka: This book discusses spiritual mysteries. It was created in the forest.

* Upanishads: The last part of the Vedas is the Upanishads. The secret mode whose knowledge is obtained by sitting near the Guru was called Upanishad. Upanishads are 108. Like - Mundakopanishad.

* Vedag: Vedang is six. Education, kalpa, grammar, nirukta, verses, and astrology

* Purana: Purana is 18.

* The author of Puranas - Lomharsha and his son are considered Ugrashravas.

* Most ancient and authentic Purana - Matsyapuran |

* Vishnupuran belongs to Maurya dynasty, Vayupurana Gupta dynasty and Matsya Puran belong to Andhra Satavahana dynasty.

: Following are six philosophical traditions.

1. Sankhya philosophy of Kapil

2. Yoga philosophy of Patanjali

3. Gautama's justice philosophy

4. The special philosophy of Kanad

5. Pre-life philosophy of Gemini

6. Vyasa's North Epistle View

Ashram system:

  The description of the four ashrams is found in the Brahmin texts.

1. Brahmacharya Ashram: Up to 25 years of age. Take education, stay in discipline.

2. Grihastha Ashram: 25 years to 50 years of age. To marry, to have children, to earn money.

3. Vanaprastha Ashram: To receive spiritual education in the forest from 50 to 75 years of age.

4. Sannyas Ashram: Tapas in the forest from 75 to 100 years of age.

Yajna tradition:

The purpose of the Yajna is for the attainment of son, attainment of wealth, fame, health and longevity.

1. Vajpayee Yajna: To get power, it used to be a Yajna 17 days a year.

2. Rajasuya Yajna: At the time of coronation, a yajna was performed for 2 years

3. Ashwamedha Yajna: In order to become the Chakravarti emperor, a three-day smooth yagna, in which the horse of the king was left open. In the area he roamed, the area became subject to the king.

Other important philosophy

Charvak philosophy: "As long as you live, live happily and drink ghee with debt". The people affected by the Vedic rituals started worrying about the present birth, and Charvak Muni gave a materialistic philosophy.

        He said that there is neither soul nor rebirth, nor any other world. Leave the worry of the hereafter and enjoy the present.


Ajitkesh Kamblin: He was a contemporary of Gautam Badva and was a follower of the Lokayat tradition. He is also called a materialist.

                 Darshan - "O Rajan! There is no such thing as charity, sacrifice or sacrifice ... There is no such thing as this world or other world."

                  Man is made up of four elements. When he dies, the earthen portion is found in the earth, the water part in the water, the heat part in the fire, the breath part in the air and his senses become part of the space ……

                     The matter of giving alms is the principle of fools, a hollow lie… both fools or scholars are destroyed and destroyed. Nobody survives after death. "


Makkhali Gosal: He was a contemporary of Gautam Badwa and a follower of the livelihood tradition. His philosophy is found in Tripitaka.

                          "Though intelligent people believe that by this virtue ......... by this penance I will attain karma ............ the foolish will gradually liberate karma by doing those same actions. Will expect. Neither of the two can do anything. Happiness and sorrow are as if predetermined quantities have been measured. It cannot be changed in the world. It cannot be increased or reduced. Like rolling a thread. Rolling opens to its full length. In the same way, both idiots and scholars will diagnose the miseries through the predetermined path. "

How were Buddhist texts prepared and preserved?

* Mahatma Buddha used to give oral education while discussing and interacting with people. Their sermons were heard by women and men as well as children.

* No address of Mahatma Buddha was written during his lifetime.

After the death of Mahatma Buddha (fifth-fourth century BCE), four Buddhist musicians were organized by his disciples. His teachings were compiled there. These collections were called "Tripitaka" (three baskets).

* Tripitaka is divided into three parts. Vinay Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka and Adhyadham Pitaka

* Vinay Pitaka - was a collection of rules for people living in the Sangha or Buddhist monasteries.

* Sutta Pitaka - Collection of Buddha's teachings and teachings.

* Adhidhamma Pitaka - A collection of philosophical ideas of Buddhism.

* There were many texts inside every Pitaka and in later ages Buddhist scholars wrote commentaries on these texts.

* After the expansion of Buddhism in Sri Lanka outside India, the Buddhist history of specific areas like Deepavansh (history of the island) and Mahavansha (great history) was written.

* The initial Buddhist text was written in Pali language, later the texts were written in Sanskrit.

Along with the Buddhist teachers of India, Chinese pilgrims Fahyan and Schwentsang also translated Buddhist texts into their own languages.

* For many centuries the manuscripts were preserved in Buddhist monasteries located in different regions of Asia.


Lord Mahavira

* According to Jain tradition, there were 23 teachers before Mahavira, they are called Tirthankaras: that is, the great men who carry people across the river of life. Lord Mahavira was the 24th Tirthankara of the Jain tradition.

* The important concept of Jain philosophy is that the world is vital. There is also life in stone, rock and water.

* Non-violence towards creatures is the focal point of Jain philosophy.

According to Jain belief, the cycle of birth and rebirth is determined by karma. Salvation and penance are required for freedom from the cycle of karma.

* Jain monks performed five vows:

Not to kill.

- Do not steal.

- Do not lie.

- To follow Brahmacharya 

- Not collecting money.

Story:

                          This story is taken from a book called Uttaradayan Sutra. In it, a queen named Kamalavati is explaining to her husband to take sannyas.

                        Even if the whole world and all its treasures are yours, you will not be satisfied, nor will all this save you. Hey Rajan! When you die and when all the money is left behind, only religion and nothing else will protect you. Just as a bird hates the cage, I hate this world. I will live like a monk without giving birth to a child and child, without any desire, without wishing for profit and without malice.

                        Those who have abandoned pleasure after consuming it, travel like air, where they feel like free birds go like flying birds ……………

                        Abandon this vast kingdom ………………… break the relationship with sensual pleasures; ................

Extension of Jainism:

* Jainism spread throughout India. Jain scholars created a lot of literature in many languages like Prakrit, Sanskrit, Tamil.

* Manuscripts related to Jainism are preserved in libraries associated with temples.

जैन धर्म की विशेष जानकारी के लिए यहाँ Click करें
जैन धर्म की विशेष जानकारी के लिए यहाँ Click करें

Mahatma Buddha and the pursuit of knowledge

        The society of India has been a Vedic religious society. In the 6th century BC, Vedic religion became a complex, ritualistic and pompous system. The common man wanted to get rid of the complexity of sacrifice and rituals. In such a situation, Mahatma Buddha was born, who, through his teachings and principles, published a simple, simple and understandable religion in the form of rituals and evil practices.

बुद्व की सम्पूर्ण जीवनी भाग 1
बुद्व की सपूर्ण जीवनी भाग 2

According to Buddhist texts, Siddhartha (the name of Budva's childhood) was the son of the chieftain of the Shakya clan. Early life was spent inside the palace amidst all the pleasures.

* One day the city came out with a chariot. On the way, seeing an old man, a sick person, and a corpse, he was deeply shocked. At that moment I saw a happy monk.

* Siddhartha decided that he too would take the path of renunciation and after some time left the palace in search of truth.

* Vaishakh Poornima attained enlightenment in Bodh Gaya under the Peepal tree and called Buddha.

Buddha's teachings:

* The teachings of Buddha are written in Sutta Pitaka.

* The teachings and teachings of Buddha were given in Pali language, which could be easily understood.

According to Buddhist philosophy, the world is eternal and is constantly changing, it is soulless because nothing is permanent or eternal here. In this brittle world, sorrow is the inherent element of human life. By following the middle path between extreme penance and sensuality, man can get rid of the miseries of the world. In the early traditions of Buddhism, the existence or absence of God was irrelevant.

According to Buddha, the society was created by humans and not by God. Therefore, kings and housewives were advised to be kind and conductful.

* Buddha envisaged liberation from the cycle of birth and death, person-centered intervention and right actions for self-knowledge and nirvana. Nirvana meant the disappearance of ego and desire.

* According to the Buddhist tradition, Buddha's final instruction to his disciples was, "You all have your own flame because you regret only finding your way to salvation".

Followers of Buddha:

* When the group of Buddha's disciples was ready, established the Union. These disciples are called monks. Those disciples who believed in Buddha's teachings as well as embodied their planetary actions were called worshipers or worshipers.

* Initially only men could join the union. Later Buddha Buddha disciple explained Buddha and got permission for women to enter the union.

* Mahaprajapati, the mother of Buddha, was the first Bhikkhuni to gain entry into the Gautami Sangh. Many women came into the union and later became theri which means women who have attained nirvana.

* Followers of Buddha came from many social classes. These included Raja, Dhanwan, Grihapati and general public workers, slaves, craftsmen.

* All those who came to the union were considered equal. The mode of operation of the Sangh was based on the tradition of the Gana and Sangha. The decision was made by Madan if there was no consensus.

Spread of Buddhism:

* Buddhism spread rapidly during Buddha's lifetime and even after his death. Along with India, spread in Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand, China etc. countries.

बुद्व की सम्पूर्ण जीवनी भाग 1
बुद्व की सपूर्ण जीवनी भाग 2

Therigatha:

This unique Buddhist book is part of Sutta Pitaka. It has a compilation of verses composed by bhikkhunis. It provides insight into the social and spiritual experiences of women. A maid named Punna used to bring river water to her master's house every morning. There she saw a Brahmin performing bathing work every day. One day he spoke to a Brahmin. The following verse was composed by Punna which describes his conversation with a Brahmin:

I am going to take water.

How frosty

I have to get in the water

Fear of punishment

Or for fear of harsh sentences of women of high families.

Hey Brahman, what are you afraid of?

By which you land in water

(While) your limbs are shivering with cold?

The Brahmin said:

I am doing good to stop evil;

Old or child

Whoever did something bad

After bathing in water, it becomes free.

Punna said:

Who said this

That bathing in water liberates from evil? .......

If so, all frogs and turtles will go to heaven

Along with water snakes and crocodiles too!

They do not act in return

Whose fear

Draws you towards the water.

Hey Brahmin, stop now!

Protect your body from frost …….

This debate teaches the "right actions" of Buddha.

Rules for monks and Lady monks in the Buddhist Union

These rules are found in Vinay Pitaka:

                             When a bhikkhu makes a new blanket or rug, he will have to use it for at least six years. If, within a period of six years, he makes a new blanket or rug without the permission of the monks, whether he has left his old blanket / rug or not - the new blanket or rug will be taken from him and for this he must confess guilt. Would be

                            If a bhikkhu goes to the house of a householder and is given a meal of muffins or ripe grains, he can accept only two to three bowls if he wishes. If he accepts it more then he must confess his "crime". After accepting two or three bowls of the dish, he has to share it with other beggars. This is the proper behavior.

                            If a bhikkhu who is staying in a monastery of the union does not cover, nor encapsulate the bed he has laid or left before departure, or if he leaves without leaving, he must confess the crime. |

Stupa Discovery:


                    As it is known from Buddhist texts that 84000 stupas were built by Emperor Ashoka. After the decline of the Maurya dynasty, rulers of other dynasties also contributed to the development of architecture. The remains of the stupa were found near Amravati in Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh, built during the Satavahana period.

                     In 1796, a local king who wanted to build a temple suddenly found the remains of the stupa of Amravati. He felt as if he had found the treasure.

                    After a few years, an English officer, Colin Mackenzie, found several sculptures during his visit to that area and also did a detailed drawing, but the report could not be published.

                    In 1854, many sculptures were taken from the Commissioner of Guntur Amravati to Madras. He came to the conclusion that the Stupa of Amravati was the largest and magnificent stupa of the Buddhists.

                    During the 1850s, engraved stones of Amaravati reached the Asiatic Society of Bengal in Calcutta, India Office in Madras and some stones in London.

                    Archaeologist H.H. Cole believed that "I feel a suicidal and unsupportable policy to let the ancient artifacts of this country be looted". They believed that plaster replicas of motifs should be kept in museums, while original works should be kept at the place of discovery.

                   Unfortunately, Cole's talk was ignored and the works of Amravati were destroyed. Perhaps scholars could not understand how important it is to preserve any archaeological remains.

                 The Stupas of Amravati were destroyed, but the Stupas of Sanchi survived.

Sanchi-Stupa :

                  Sanchi Stupa has been included in the major cultural heritage of the world. Sanchi hill is situated 25 km from Raisen district headquarters of Madhya Pradesh. This place is connected by rail and the main road. A large number of tourists come from all over the country and abroad.

Books based on Sanchi:

* Alexander Cunningham wrote "Bhilsa Tops" in 1854 AD.

* In 1923 AD, John Marshall and Alfred Fusé "The Monuments of Sanchi".

How to secure Sanchi Stupa?

              As you read above, how the stupa of Amravati was destroyed. But Sanchi Stupa remained safe. Credit to H.H. Call's critical thinking and Begum of Bhopal goes to Shah Jahan Begum and her successor Sultan Jahan Begum.

Sanchi and Empress of Bhopal:

                The British and the French sought permission from Begum of Bhopal to display Sanchi's eastern archway at the French Museum. But both were satisfied by giving them plastered replicas made of plaster and in this way Sanchi's stupa was made.

                        The Begums of Bhopal provided funds for the maintenance of the ancient site, which led to the construction of a museum and guest house.

                           This stupa also survived because the railway contractors were not seen. Today this place is a living example of successful repair and conservation of Archaeological Survey of India. Sanchi was included in a world heritage in 1989 AD.

Search of Sanchi Stupa:

            In 1818, General Taylor discovered Sanchi's stupas. Its three archways were standing in the right form, while the fourth fell there and the mound was also in good condition.

            In 1851, Alexander Cunningham and Captain F.C. Macy did the digging. He studied the remains and published his findings in his book.

             In 1881, Major Call completed many works in Sanchi. In 1912, John Marshall carried out the excavation. The last excavation took place in 1936 AD.

Construction of Sanchi Stupa:

                 Mahastupa was built during the time of Emperor Ashoka (268–233 BCE) with the help of bricks and a wooden altar was built around it. During the period of the Sunga dynasty (148 BC to 72 BC) the stupa was inlaid with stone slabs and the Vedika was also made of stone. During the Satavahana period four archways were installed in all directions.

                  The diameter of the stupa is 126 feet and height is 54 feet.

Art of Sanchi Stupa

                 In order to understand the art of Sanchi Stupa it is necessary to understand the written writings of Buddha. The artefacts on the stupa and archway are as a symbol of the events of Buddha's life. Also, the stories related to the Jataka stories have been embodied.

Folk traditions and shalabhanjika

                 Many statues carved in Sanchi were not directly related to Buddhism. One of them was - Shalabhanjika idol

A woman dangling by holding a tree on the side of the archway. A study of literary traditions revealed that it is an idol of Salbhanjika described in Sanskrit language. It was believed that due to being touched by this woman, trees used to bloom full and start bearing fruit.

                It is known from Shalabhanjika that people who came from other religions, beliefs and practices, they enriched Buddhism.

                The sculptures of animals carved on the Sanchi Stupa were used as a symbol of human qualities.

In these symbols, there is a statue of a woman between the lotus party and the elephants, these elephants are sprinkling water on the woman as if they are anointing them. Some historians associate Buddha's mother with Maya, while other historians consider Goddess Gajalakshmi. Gajalakshmi was the goddess of good fortune who is often associated with elephants.

                 To understand the sculpture art of Sanchi Stupa it is necessary to study Buddhist texts. Otherwise, its meaning becomes more different.

                Historian James Ferguson, writing on the subject of art, considered Sanchi to be the center of tree and snake worship. He was unaware of Buddhist literature.

Buddhism:

Later, Buddhism was divided into three parts - Hinayana, Mahayana, Vajrayana respectively.

1. Hinayana / Theravada - Hinayana means short cycle. These people followed the basic teachings and principles of Buddha. They believed in the octagonal path. There was no belief in idol worship.

Emperor Ashoka was the patron of Hinayana religion.

2. Mahayana - Mahayana means the great cycle of salvation. Believed in idol worship. Worshiped Buddha in the form of God in place of human. Kanishka was the patron of Mahayana religion. In the fourth Buddhist Council held in the first century, Buddhism was divided into two parts.

3. Vajrayana - The rise of this community occurred in Bihar and Bengal during the 8th century. It was a ritualistic community. In which women and wines were essential. Its evils led to the downfall of Buddhism.

Rise of mythological Hinduism

In this new tradition, we will study about Vaishnavism and Shaivism.

Vaishnavism:

                The Vaishnavism has evolved from the Bhagavata religion. Shri Krishna is believed to be the originator of Bhagwat religion. The presiding deity of Vaishnava religion is Vishnu.

                In the "Ashtadhyayi" text composed by Panini, there is mention of Bhagavata religion.

                In the Chandogya Upanishad, Shri Krishna is described as the son of Devaki and the disciple of Angiras.

                The main center of Bhagwat religion was Mathura from where it spread to other parts of the country.

The climax of Vaishnavism occurred in the Gupta period (319–550 AD). Vishnu's vehicle "Garuda" was the royal emblem of the Gupta kings and the Vaishnava religion Rajdharma.

Major Vishnu temples built during Gupta period

1. Tigwa Vishnu Temple (Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh)

2. Dashavatar Temple of Deogarh (Jhansi, Madhya Pradesh)

3. Vishnu Temple of Aran (Maharashtra)


                            Vaishnavism flourished during the Rajput period. Various articles of that period were revered to Lord Vishnu by saying "Om Namo Bhagavate Vasudevaya Namah".

                             Ten incarnations of Shri Vishnu are described in the Puranas written in Gupta period. Later their idols were made.

Ten avatar:

1. Matsya Avatar: At the time of the Great Flood, Lord Vishnu, wearing Matsya avatar, protected the Vedas and Manu of the earth.


2. Kachhap Avatar: At the time of the Great Flood, nectar and precious gems merged in the sea. In such a situation, Lord Vishnu took the Kachhap avatar and kept the mountain of Mandarachal and made the snake lord churning the sea. Amrit, Lakshmi and 14 other gems were obtained from this churning.


3. Varaha Avatar: When the demon king Hiranyaksha was oppressed on earth, Shri Vishnu took birth as Varaha Avatar and protected the earth from it.


4. Narasimha avatar: To save the devotee Pahlada from his father demon Hiranyakashyap, took incarnation of Narasimha.


5. Vamana Avatar: It is said that a demon named Bali had taken control of all the Brahmanas, but he was also a Mahadani. At the persuasion of the gods, Shri Vishnu incarnated as a dwarf and asked for three steps of land before the sacrifice. The sacrifice was ready. Then Shri Vishnu assumed his huge size and measured the earth, sky in two steps. The third step was placed on the head of the sacrifice, so that the sacrifice went to Hades.


6. Parashurama Avatar: He made the earth devoid of Kshatriyas 21 times.


7. Rama Avatar: Lord Shri Vishnu incarnated as Shri Rama to slay Ravana.


8. Krishna Avatar: To kill the demon Kamsa, Lord Vishnu incarnated Shri Krishna.


9. Buddha incarnation: Shri Vishnu incarnated as Buddha to stop animal sacrifice, teach people religion, compassion, truth, non-violence.


10. Kalki Avatar: It is believed that Kalki Avatar is a future avatar.

In the Kali Yuga, Shri Vishnu will incarnate on a white horse to free the earth from crime and unrighteousness.

Vaishnavism in South India:

 Vaishnavism was propagated to stop the increasing influence of Buddhism and Jainism.

Vaishnava followers in South India were called Alwar saints. Aalvar means a knowledgeable person. The number of Alwar saints is given 12.

Major saints of Vaishnavism:

Nathmuni, Yamunacharya, Ramanujacharya, etc.

Principles of Vaishnavism:

1. Emphasis on attaining salvation by Vishnu devotion

2. Emphasis on salvation through knowledge, action and devotion

3. Believe in Avatarism


The confirmation of avatarism is also found in the Bhagavad Gita and Ramcharitmanas.

Goswami Tulsi Das writes:

  "  जब जब होहिं धरम के हानि |
                                      बढ़हिं असुर महाभिमानी ||
                                     तब तब प्रभु धर विविध शरीरा |
                                     हरिहं कृपा निधि सज्जन  पीढ़ा ||"
भागवत गीता में कहा गया है -
                            " यदा  यदा हि धर्मस्य ग्लानिर्भवती भारत |
                             अभ्युथानम धर्मस्य  तदात्मानं  सृजाम्यह्न्म ||
                             परित्राणाय साधुनां विनाशाय च  दुष्कृताम |
                             धर्म संस्थापनाथार्य सम्भवामि युगे युगे ||"
Shaivism:
Religion related to Lord Shiva is called "Shaiva". Those who obey their views are called Shaivas.
Shiva was called Rudra in the Rigveda. Evidence of Shiva has also been found in the Harappan civilization.
         The Arthashastra of Kautilya suggests that Shiva worship was prevalent even in the Mauryan period. In the Gupta period, Shiva temple of Bhumra and Parvati temple of Nachna Kuthar were Shaiva temple.
Chinese traveler Xuanzang has also mentioned Shiva worship. During the Rajput period (800–1200 AD), Shaivism was a period of growth.
Scholars like Kalidas, Bhavabhuti, Subandhu, and Banabhatta were worshipers of Shaivism.

Shaivism in South India: 
Rashtrakuta, Pallava, Chalukya and Chola dynasties patronized Shaivism in South India.
Rashtrakuta king Krishna II built the Kailashnath temple of Ellora.
The Chola ruler Rajaraja I built the Rajarajeshwara temple at Tanjore.
Rajendra Chola built the Brihadeeswarar Temple in Tanjore.

Nayanar: 
The followers of Shaivism are called Nayanars. The number of Nayanar saints is stated to be 63. Among them, the names of Appar, Tirugyan, Sundaramurthy and Manikwachagar are prominent.

Principles of Shaivism:
1. Shaiva saints propagated Shaivism in Tamil society through bhajan-kirtan, scripture and preaching and considered God as the only means of attainment.
2. Nayanar was opposed to caste discrimination.
3. Used to teach Bhakti in Telugu language.

In Vamana Purana, the number of Shaivism is given as four.
1. Pashupat 2. Kapalik / Kalamukh 3 .. Lingayat 4. Nath

1. Pashupat Sampradaya: considered the most ancient sect of Shaivism and its founder was Lakulish.
The main temple of this community is Pashupati Nath Temple in Nepal.

2. Kapalik: The presiding deity of this community is considered "Bhairava". Followers of this faith used to consume the crematorium on the body, wear a garland of Narmund in the neck. According to the book "Malati Madhav" composed by Bhavabhuti, their main center has been described as a place called Srisail.

3. Lingayat sect: Lingayat or Veerashaiva movement emerged in 12th century. The founder of this community was Vasava and his nephew Channavasava. It is opposed to Vedas and idolatry but wears Shiva's presiding deity. They give priority to karma. The followers of this community are mainly in Karnataka.

4. Nath Sampradaya: During the 10th century, Matyendra Nath founded the Nath Sampradaya. But later Baba Gorakhnath carried this community forward. Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Yogi Aditya Nath belongs to this community.

Development of temples:
* The development of temples in India is considered to begin with the construction of Buddhist stupas and viharas.
* Initially, a square room was built to keep the idols of the Gods and Gods, which were called Garbhagriha. There used to be a door in which worshipers could enter the temple for worship.
* Gradually, a stove was built above the sanctum sanctorum which was called Shikhar. Wet paintings were carved on the walls of the temple.
* The architecture of temples has developed considerably over time. Huge synagogues, high walls and pylons were also constructed along with temples.
* The early temples were hollowed out and made into artificial caves.
* The oldest artificial caves were equal caves in Gaya, Bihar, which were built for the saints of the Ajivik sect, by the order of Emperor Ashoka in the third century BC.
* Later this tradition continued to develop. The Kailashnath temple built in the eighth century is an example of this.

Try to understand the engraved pictures:
* The attempt to understand Indian history begins with the arrival of the British. In the 19th century, scholars found these idols distorted.
* Compared the sculptures of Buddha and Bodhisat from excavation from Taxila and Peshawar to Greek art. Because in the second century BC, the areas were ruled by the Indo-Greek kings and these idols resembled the Greek sculpture.
* Scholars have used religious texts to understand Indian sculpture.
* It was not so easy to find the meaning of the engraved idols based on the stories of religious texts. An example of this is - sculptures engraved on the kattan in Mahabalipuram (Tamil Nadu).

Some believe that it depicts the descent of the Ganges from heaven. The natural crack between the rock surface is probably showing the river. This story is described in the Puranas.
                    The second scholar believes that Arjuna's penance given in the Mahabharata is shown in order to obtain the Divya Shastra. He gives importance to the matter of placing a monk among the idols in the center.

                            Finally, it should be noted that many customs, religious beliefs and practices were not recorded by buildings, sculptures or paintings as permanent visual mediums. These include day-to-day and customs of specific occasions. It is possible that he has an active tradition of religious activities and philosophical beliefs. In fact, the splendid examples we have chosen in this chapter are just the upper layer of a vast knowledge.

                                          End

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